Analysis on Aesthetic Experience Paradigm of Health Qigong Teaching
New progress is achieved in the exploration of teaching paradigm of Health Qigong as more teaching activities of Health Qigong are conducted and teaching quality is improved. Of them, the concept of taking aesthetic experience as teaching paradigm is approved by more and more social sports instructors and exercisers. In short, the aesthetic experience paradigm of Health Qigong teaching allows both instructors and exercisers in teaching process to upgrade the experience accumulation of exercise methods into their own life experience. Such teaching effect is self-evident. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out further research. I. Function of aesthetic experience in Health Qigong teaching Aesthetic experience in Health Qigong teaching aims at construction and development of aesthetic psychology. It occurs at the wink of idea, but always remains in the individual life of exercisers, convulsed but unexplainable. The so-called life experience refers to that the fundamental purpose of Health Qigong teaching is to train exercisers to constantly perceive the significance of harmony between nature and human beings and the importance of a healthy life. Experience is rightly human’s understanding on the significance of life. The life of human beings is not only tangible natural corporal existence but also weighed by vividness and colorfulness of spirit. It is more an experience process of regulating breathing to preserve the vitality of life. Therefore, the key of aesthetic experience in Health Qigong teaching lies in perceiving the significance of a healthy life. In other words, the driving force of Health Qigong teaching is to make participants understand that human beings shall not only live but also live healthily and they shall master the method for living healthily. Such experience is based on the precondition of existence of life. It merges Health Qigong into the consciousness of their own life directly, makes the self, society, others and ego one unity, makes them to experience and perceive using one’s whole life. It surpasses the limitation of time, integrates past, future and present into an instant, makes the spirit of an individual to embrace Health Qigong and let his life stay in the motion state of combination of regulations of body, breath and mind. Health Qigong teaching includes impartation of acquired knowledge and skills and experience by oneself. Generally speaking, people’s acquired knowledge and skills and experience are two concepts that differ from each other but associate with each other. Acquired knowledge and skills refers to the impression or knowledge retained in people’s mind developed from the objective world. It is the knowledge that is gradually accumulated by human beings or individuals through practice in productive labor and social life. It is historical accumulation. It is the knowledge that proves to be effective after repeated argumentations, screening and application by people in social practices and activities. It is universal. It is the knowledge that is imparted from last generation to the next generation through educational activities in various forms. It is inheritable. Therefore, it is the knowledge that is relatively stable and static. For those beginners of Health Qigong, this acquired knowledge and skills oriented teaching paradigm is not only necessary but also inevitable. Experience is based on acquired knowledge and skills, but it is an enhancement and transcendence of acquired knowledge and skills. Experience has the content of acquired knowledge and skills accumulated by the subject exercisers as the object to conduct re-tasting, rumination and appreciation of such acquired knowledge and skills with emotional colorings. As one form of life activity, it is the current understanding, perception, enlightenment and contemplation of exercisers on exercise methods. It is a highly transparent spiritual state. The aesthetic experience in Health Qigong teaching is active, creative and process-oriented. Firstly, it is the acquired knowledge and skills with life consciousness. In the world of experience, all the objects are alive. All is alive with the significance and color of life. It associates the knowledge and skills obtained by predecessors in exercising Qigong with the authentic life of one’s own together, perceiving and revealing the significance of body building and health preservation and the meaning of life from the needs of society and exercisers as well as exercisers’ previous life accumulation and life experience. Secondly, experience is activated knowledge and skills acquired. Experience is a tension field in which souls of exercisers are associated with exercise method. During the process of blending essence, breath and mind into exercise method, through the merging, collision and convergence of several psychological factors such as perception, imagination, empathy and thought, the relatively stable and static knowledge and skills of predecessors obtained from exercises are activated and awakened in the souls of exercisers and generate a much stronger, more profound and amazing vitality. This kind of experience can be overwhelming awe generated in a wink or transient sense of happiness. Thirdly, experience is internalized knowledge and acquired skills. The aesthetic experience process in Health Qigong teaching is actually a process in which the exercise method of Health Qigong and the existence state of exercisers spread over inside their souls and conduct a dialogue there, i.e., it is a process in which exercisers recover, reprocess and recreate the acquired knowledge and acquired skills obtained by them through such life activities as understanding, perceiving and appreciating to generate a more profound romantic charm that individual life is integrated. Fourthly, experience is individualized knowledge and acquired skills. In the promotion and teaching in usual time, what is stressed more is the widespread acceptance and common perception of knowledge and acquired skills due to limitation of conditions and motivation. While in the aesthetic experience process in Health Qigong teaching, it directly targets at the souls of exercisers, evokes an echo their souls and inspires them to fully perceive the significance of exercises. Since exercisers’ understanding, interpretation and appreciation of exercise method is affected by their own experiences, emotion, temperament, etc., they become the unique psychological content of exercisers. The individual characteristics of experience are thus fully reflected. Based on recognition, experience is an enhancement and transcendence of recognition. It is indisputable to focus on the inheriting, imitating and following property of teaching process in previous Health Qigong teaching. The aesthetic construction in Health Qigong teaching holds that teaching process is both a special recognition process and a unique life experience process of an individual. Firstly, essentials of exercise methods presented during the teaching process are not only the intermediary between educator and the educated but also the platform for mutual communication and emotional communication between the educator and the educated. Both teachers and students are sure to merge into exercise method and develop into a natural teaching scene. The aesthetic experience process in Health Qigong teaching is a kind of enhancement and transcendence of life achieved by human beings. The most fundamental purpose of such teaching process shall be attaching more attention to the experience ability of exercisers and the overall development of exercisers’ physical and mental health. Therefore, the experience of exercisers holds vital importance for existence of life, enhancement of life, and essence, breath and mind of an individual. As is said by Karl Marx, “People not only affirm themselves in thinking but also affirm themselves in object world with all sensations.” Emphasizing the development of experience ability of exercisers and the aesthetic process of teaching process during Health Qigong teaching, making exercising become needs for exercisers and making exercise process a pleasure is in line with the development direction of teaching process and the development direction of self improvement in human nature. II. Characteristics of aesthetic experience in Health Qigong teaching Aesthetic experience in Health Qigong teaching is a complicated psychological activity process. This thesis focuses on discussing two difficult mental statuses, namely: “perceiving others’ mind via minor hints” and “free imagination”. The “perceiving others’ minds via minor hints” in aesthetic experience of Health Qigong teaching is a real experience of aesthetic experience occurring in Health Qigong teaching activity. It is, by no mean, mysterious. As several popular sayings goes, “knowing others’ intentions through minor hints”, “smiling for knowing inner thoughts of others without any utterance” and “soul-to-soul understanding”, etc. All conveys the meaning that for the things perceived, people’s heart is touched and emotion is affected. The aesthetic experience at the level of mind and ideation is the so-called “perceiving other’s minds via minor hints”. “Perceiving other’s mind via minor hints” is one kind of state in aesthetic experience of Health Qigong teaching. This “Perceiving other’s mind via minor hints” at the level of mind and ideation signifies that the aesthetic experience of Health Qigong teaching enters the stage of activity of mind and ideas. Firstly, from the point of view of exercise method of Health Qigong, the existence reflected by its form and structure represents a vigorous vitality. People often say, the mountain laughs, the river is sentimental, the wind sobs, the cloud is unwilling to part, etc. All is to express that the mountain and the river are alive, full of vigor. Amidst these scenes, people read through the mind of nature. Similarly, Health Qigong teaching evokes a strong echo in the educator and the educated in every gesture and motion of the exercise at the level of “perceiving other’s minds via minor hints”. Secondly, from the perspective of the educator and the educated, their emotion and imagination convert the specific exercises of Health Qigong into the symbol of a pounding soul. As is also shown in the poetry “a crane plunges into the bright sky and soars high together with the cloud, then the mood of the poet is led into the sky too”. The motion model of such sentiment forms a heterogeneous isomorphism. During the aesthetic experience of Health Qigong teaching, the dividing line between the educator and the educated vanishes completely before the exercise method. Their minds and thoughts mingle in the implication of exercise methods and both of them obtain a pleasant mood. “Perceiving other’s minds via minor hints” is both the recognition of vitality of exercise method of Health Qigong and the reflection of emotions of both the teacher and the students. This process is not only the moving on the souls of exercisers from Health Qigong, the one-way empathy from exercisers to exercise method, but also the mutual dialogue and sympathetic resonance between exercisers and exercise method of Health Qigong. Therefore, “perceiving other’s minds via minor hints” is the profound recognition of exercisers’ souls on the vitality of exercise method of Health Qigong. The coherence between exercise state, exercise tempo and law of changes in yin and yang, is the recognition of the nature of exercise method and the perception of the vitality of exercise method. It means the depth of perceiving the exercise method whole-heartedly; it means the input of emotion, emotional communication, unity of mind and matter and the state of echo in men of similar interest. Seeing from whatever aspect, “perceiving other’s minds via minor hints” is the bidirectional communication between exercisers and exercise method, and the profound recognition of souls of exercisers on the vitality of exercise method. “Refreshing” in aesthetic experience of Health Qigong. “Refreshing”, the phrase was very popular in the period of Six Dynasties in Chinese history. It suggests that people’s aesthetic process towards nature becomes highly developed. Then, what kind of mental state is “refreshing” on earth? To put it short, it refers to that exercisers feel pleasant due to the fact their mind and will are unblocked, stretched and developed. Therefore, “refreshing” is another state in aesthetic experience of Health Qigong teaching. That is, pleasant mood. For such pleasure at the level of spirit and mind, two points shall be emphasized: firstly, it refers to the delight in the spirit and mind of the subject; secondly, it refers to the enhancement of the spirit and mind of the subjects. Firstly, let us see the “sense of unblocking”: Why will this kind of “sense of unblocking” occur? This is a state occurred when a coherence is reached during the reaction between life of exercisers and the life of Health Qigong. From the aspect of Health Qigong, it betrays the emotion of exercisers in aesthetic experience. Therefore, the natural situation of Health Qigong assumes the tone of life of exercisers. From the aspect of exercisers, the exercisers have already perceived the profound nature of Health Qigong and silently noticed the internal tempo of exercise method during the aesthetic experience process. As a result, the exercisers convert Health Qigong into the symbol of soul via imaginations. Therefore, all the technical essentials of Health Qigong become insipid, free and unblocked, accordingly. At this moment, the coherence between soul and exercise method, human and nature also become extremely profound. The “sense of unblocking” brought about through such aesthetic experience is the experience on freedom by aesthetic activity and the recognition of certainty. Secondly, “sense of enhancement”: The aesthetic experience in Health Qigong teaching is one form of self-realization. Self-realization is a senior need among many needs of human beings. The aesthetic experience of Health Qigong is more the perception of value and significance of the self. It is an emblematic self-realization. The movements of Health Qigong bring exercisers strong experience of self-realization and a soothing and comfortable sense of happiness, making the spirit and mind of exercisers raised to a perfect height suddenly. The enhancement of self-value perceived through aesthetic experience also means the enhancement of spirit and will. This is “refreshing”. In other words, “refreshing” is the aesthetic experience at the level of spirit and mind, referring to the delight obtained by people through the unblocking and enhancement of the dominant spirit and mind. Therefore, the two mental statuses occurring in aesthetic experience, “perceiving others’ mind via minor hints” and “refreshing” each have their own focuses: “perceiving others’ mind via minor hints”, is reflected at the level of mind and ideation, it is the profound mastering of the vitality of Health Qigong by the souls of exercisers via their intuition; “refreshing”, is reflected at the level of spirit and mind, referring to the delight obtained by exercisers through unblocking and enhancement of their mind and will. However, both the former and the latter are psychological facts occurring when exercising Health Qigong. Any practice that mystifies them is inadvisable. III. The procedure of aesthetic experience in Health Qigong teaching For the process of aesthetic experience in Health Qigong teaching, its own teaching procedure is also designed. The training objectives of this teaching procedure and aesthetic mode are consistent. This procedure is a time sequence, ability training sequence and also a sequence of psychological activities. However, it must be made clear that it takes the life experience of human beings as the core. This sequence can also be divided into five stages. “Wholly concentrated”. The teaching activities of Health Qigong occur in certain teaching scene and space. The teaching scene refers to the material environment, psychological environment and teaching atmosphere that are designed, chosen, or constructed by both the educator and the educated based on certain plan out of certain purpose to serve for activity subject, teaching purpose and teaching content. The effect of the teaching activity depends on the nature of the reaction between both the educator and the educated and the teaching scene. Therefore, the method to make both the educator and the educated merge into the teaching scene, have strong interest in the whole learning process and experience the significance of life implied in teaching scene is the starting point of a teaching activity. In this process, the first thing is to design and arrange an elegant and pleasant environment; the second thing is to create a transparent and broad mental status, to make both the educator and the educated enter the scene with emotion and accept all things with a broad mind and tolerate the world; the third thing is to create a natural and quiet scene. It is advised to create, during the teaching process, a teaching atmosphere in which the real and the virtual are combined together, so as to make the concealed and potential images in teaching content and various teaching media appear on the minds of the educated. “Seeing through others’ minds and perceiving their intentions”. “Seeing through others’ minds and perceiving their intentions” in Health Qigong teaching refers to the perception or experience of the content learned by exercisers during teaching process. The exercisers understand certain life from the meaning conveyed via teaching content with their own life experience taken into consideration. The exercisers master the significance of existence in the process of perception. The so-called “seeing through others’ minds” refers to the perception during teaching process. It is the rare chance for the educator to merge the mind of the educated into exercise method, so as to guide the educated to associate the acquired experience with the knowledge on books, conduct thinking processing, understand the original meaning of exercise method, make clear the basic concepts, principles and methods and master the nature and law of Health Qigong. The so-called “perceiving others intentions” refers to a perception activity occurring on human mind during the reaction of human and the environment. During the teaching process, it refers to mastering the direct meaning and emotional characteristics of exercise method to understand and interpret and proceeding from recognition process to aesthetic process through reaction between the educator and the educated with teaching content as the intermediary. Such process of “seeing through others’ minds and perceiving their intentions” is a process of perceiving truth. Firstly, it is the inspiration permeating through perception. During this process, the knowledge and experience accumulated by ancient sages and scholars is regrouped and shown in a form that fits the recognition of the educated, so that the educated are made to understand and accept them according to their needs and such knowledge forms some new structures. The more active this process is, the more positive the reaction is, the higher the perception level will be. Secondly, it is a perception permeating in imagination. It is common that there is a phenomenon of “different people have different views over an issue” in the process in which the educated understand and accept Health Qigong. The reason why this phenomenon occurs is that the educated take whatever they need and love whatever they like based on their original life experience and psychological background. The aesthetic experience of Health Qigong is to inspire different imaginations. Thirdly, it is a perception permeating in emotion. It requires that the educator and the educated blend their own emotional experience of e teaching content and scene with their own life experience and emotion activity closely together, merge their own emotion into the exercise method, make imagination the pleasant wandering in exercise method and emotion during the teaching process as an aesthetic experience, so as to make the emotional experience in aesthetic teaching process much stronger and deeper and obtain the romantic charm of Health Qigong truly. “Imagination wandering freely”. “Imagination wandering freely” refers to that the souls of exercisers react freely with or merge naturally into exercise content or the scene during the teaching activity of aesthetic experience. It is the permeation and coherence between emotion and imagination based on exercisers’ perception of exercise content and the scene. Firstly, the teaching activity of aesthetic experience is both a recognition activity and an emotional activity. Therefore, it is advised to create a condition during the teaching activity of aesthetic experience that evokes emotional association between exercise content and the souls of exercisers and make teaching content more vivid by employing several teaching methods and means, so as to evoke emotion and arouse interest and enhance taste. Secondly, during the teaching activity of aesthetic experience, it is required to inspire free imagination of exercisers and allow their imagination to move freely on the basis of essentials of exercise method and previous experience. Thirdly, it is required to fully stimulate the creativity of exercisers to allow them to experience fully the fun brought by to life activities from Health Qigong exercise. “Empathy and forgetting”. The so-called “empathy” refers to the synchronic and multi-direction coordination and reaction between exercisers and exercise method occurring during aesthetic experience teaching. Firstly, the scene presented in the teaching activity is both alluring and breath-taking, and it evokes the life experience of both the educator and the educated. Secondly, use previous life experience to inspire their emotion and imagination at that time, and enrich and enhance the connotation of exercise method; thirdly, the educator and the educated cooperate with each other perfectly and generate a consonance in their souls which fully arouse and inspire good mental state of the educated to evoke an echo in both the educator and the educated based on perception. The so-called “forgetting” refers to that the spirit of exercisers gets rid of the bondage of teaching itself under the effect of empathy, transcends the ego and nature and reach the state of forgetting the surroundings and the self. Both the educator and the educated take teaching content and specific scene as the intermediary, exchange information, communicate emotions and affirm each other’s personality in a harmonious atmosphere. Thus, the experience of life surpasses such constraints as imitation, essentials, etc. and mounts to the state of perception, taste and appreciation. “Delighting and refreshing”. “Delighting and refreshing” refers to that all the aesthetic connotations in teaching content and scene are discovered and released based on empathy and echo. Both the educator and the educated bring the initiative of aesthetic experience into full play, from such intuitions in sense organs such as soothing ears and feasting eyes, to being pleasant and satisfied with the content, perception and taste implied in the meaning of exercise method, and finally to mounting to the state of “delighting and refreshing” with the content of exercise method. The souls of exercisers are shocked and cleaned. The harmony between human and nature, human and society, human and others, human and the self occurs accordingly. The state of “delighting and refreshing” in teaching process is the highest state that teaching process pursues. It is the transient experience and delight of a healthy life during the reaction between both the educator and the educated with exercise method. It is the delight from full confidence of the self, others and life and self-realization during the reaction in collision of souls during teaching. Here, the exercisers surpass the limitation of recognition and experience further the allure of reality released from recognition process based on the accumulation of knowledge and experience. Here, the exercisers surpass the limitation of knowledge imparted from the teacher and share fully the joy from emotional communication occurring in the reaction of both the educator and the educated under the precondition that exercisers learn from the teacher. Here, the exercisers re-examine themselves at the same time of getting to know others, surpassing the limitation of others’ recognition and the limitation of themselves and really perceive the joy generated from wisdom awakening during the collision between souls. During this process, an aesthetic delight creeps into the deepest part of the souls of the exercisers, which exerts tremendous influence on shaping morality of them.